Consultant and Author on Election Integrity
5025 Broken Oak Lane, Columbia, MD 21044
Phone: 1.410.730.4983 — Cell: 1.443.878.9432

Academic Credentials
1976: Master of Public Administration in Public Policy (MPA), American U., Washington, DC;
1962: Professional Degree of Electrical Engineer (EE), Columbia University, New York, NY;
1955: Master’s in Elec. Eng. (MSEE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA;
1953: Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (BEE), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Independent Professional Activities, 1996-2008
2008: 10/17, participated in a panel on election technology at National Archives, Washington, DC.
2007: Reviewed a paper submitted to the Journal of Information Technology and Politics (JITP).
2006: (1) wrote a book review published in Election Law Journal: (2) participated as an invited speaker and delivered a paper at a March 29 conference on the effectiveness of the Help America Vote Act hosted by the Center for Democracy and Election Management at American University, Washington, DC; (3) reviewed a paper proposed for presentation at the 10th World Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (4) published a book on voting technology; see below.
2005: (1) Completed work for Int’l Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) on a paper “Standards for U.S. Voting Systems;” (2) Participated as an invited speaker in the “Voting Systems Testing Summit,” hosted by the California Secretary of State, Sacramento, CA, November 28, 29.
2004: (1) Testified for Amer. Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Ohio in a federal lawsuit (Stewart v. Blackwell) to eliminate use of punch-card technology; (2) Assisted the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pro bono, in the preparation of an exhibit on voting technology.
2003: (1) Served on a grant-decision panel of National Science Foundation (NSF); (2) consulted for a law firm on a patent matter; (3) consulted for ACLU of So. Cal. on voting technology for the recall election; and for (4) ACLU of MD on accessibility for independent voting by blind persons.
2002: Consulted for (1) ACLU of Chicago on human performance of voting technology; (2) for NAACP Legal Defense Fund on evidence of discrimination or misfeasance in Florida election administration in 2000; (3) for IFES, on voting equipment alternatives for Republic of Georgia.
2001: (1) Testified to US House Committee on Science; (2) testified to MD Gov’s Special Committee on Voting Technology; (3) Evaluated new equipment standards for US FEC; (4) Participated in several national reform studies: Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, Constitution Project of Georgetown University Law School, National Commission on Federal Election Reform; (5) consulted for ACLU of So. Cal. on litigation to eliminate punch-card voting technology.
2000: (1) Consulted for an election software vendor on Internet voting; (2) participated in the Internet Voting Workshop sponsored by the NSF;
1999: (1) Observed a Venezuelan national election for The Carter Center; (2) As a consultant for IFES, evaluated new Japanese election equipment and strategies for the manufacturer;
1999/1998: For IFES, worked with the Government of Ecuador to plan computerization of elections, including equipment selection;
1998/1997: For IFES, evaluated competitive election equipment for Venezuela;
1996: For the Inter-American Development Bank and Government of Brazil, wrote a requested report evaluating Brazil’s new computerized voting system for voter ease-of-use and security.
Government Work Experience, 1969-1996:
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): (known as National Bureau of Standards before 8/88) Served as a computer scientist concerned with information systems standards and policies; worked with many federal agencies, US states and local governments, the private sector, national governments, and the UN; retired 4/96.
During 1983 – 1996, promoted adoption, within the Government as well as nationally and internationally, of a standard system of electronic data interchange (EDI) that facilitates electronic commerce; investigated and recommended security for EDI; authored the federal regulation on use of EDI standards; served as the NIST representative to national standardization bodies on EDI, and as a member of the US delegation to the international standardization body under UN auspices.
In 1990, served as a consultant to the State of Delaware in their conversion of election processes to use of computer-based equipment.
During 1988 and 1975: completed authorship of two nationally distributed reports on integrity and security of computerized vote-tallying in national elections. The 1988 report, written under a grant from the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation, was widely cited in the media following the 2000 Presidential election for its recommendation that “the use of pre-scored punch card ballots should be ended.” The 1975 report, sponsored by the US General Accounting Office, laid the groundwork for the development of federal voting system standards.
In 1975, on an Intergovernmental Affairs Fellowship, guided the Minnesota State Elections Division in the development of regulations implementing statutes concerning certification and use of computerized election equipment and related computer programs;
During 1969 – 1982, undertook a variety of management and other consulting assignments; e.g., led a project sponsored by the NSF on the copyrightability of computer-readable works; presented the results in testimony in 1977 to the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrightable Works (in preparation for new federal legislation); also, consulted for the US Bureau of Customs, 1971, to assist them in establishing a research agenda.

Private Sector Experience: Sperry Gyroscope Co., 1955-1964, and IBM, 1964-1969. As a systems engineer, carried out logical design of computers, designed and wrote applications software, made presentations on features and applications to prospective customers.

Authored Book and Chapters in Books: (excludes book on Sacred Humanism, 2012)

The History and Politics of Voting Technology: In Quest of Integrity and Public Confidence, January 2006, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

“Public Confidence and Auditability in Voting Systems,” Chapter 8 in D. Gritzalis (ed.), Secure Electronic Voting, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

“Computerized Voting,” Chapter 5 in M. Yovits (ed.), Advances in Computers, Vol. 32, Academic Press, 1991, pp. 255-305.

Authored Publications of the National Institute of Standards and Technology:

Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange [editor], Special Publication 800-9, December 1993, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

“On the Optimal Expenditure of Computer Security Costs,” in Workshop on Security Procedures for the Interchange of Electronic Documents, NISTIR 5247, August 1993, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

Accuracy, Integrity and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying, NBS SP 500-158, August, 1988, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
[online at]

Copyright in Computer-Readable Works: Policy Impacts of Technological Change, NBS Publication SP500-17, October, 1977, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

Effective Use of Computing Technology in Vote-Tallying, NBS Report NBSIR 75-687, March 1975, (reprinted as NBS SP 500-30, April 1978), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. [online at]

Other Publications:]“Independent Verification: Essential Activity to Assure Integrity in the Voting Process,” report contracted by NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, 22 August, 2006.

“The Importance of Research and Standards in Election Administration,” written testimony to US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Washington, DC, 22 May 2001.

“Filling the Institutional Void,” Elections Today, Spring 2001 – Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 15-17; Inter-national Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), Washington, DC.

“Conducting Elections in Maryland: Considerations for the Future,” presented to Governor’s Special Committee on Voting Systems and Election Procedures in Maryland, 4 January 2001, Annapolis, MD. [Online at]

“Adopting Computerized Voting in Developing Countries: Comparisons with the US Experience,” CPSR Newsletter, v16 n1, Winter ’98, pp.13-15; Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Palo Alto, CA. [online at

“Brazil Adopts Computerized Voting,” Elections Today, Winter 1997 – Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 6; Inter-national Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), Washington, DC.

“Communication to Hon. Al Swift, Chairman, House Subcommittee on Elections,” in Alternative Ballot Techniques, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elections of the Committee on House Administration, 103rd Congress, Second Session, 22 Sept. 1994, Washington, DC.

“Assuring Accuracy, Integrity and Security in National Elections: The Role of the U.S. Congress,” Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 9-12 March 1993.
[online at]

“Educating Public Administrators for Managing Science and Technology,” Public Administration Review, July 1974, pp. 394-396.

Other Writings:

“Fifty Years of Computerized Voting: Technologies and Institutions,” presented to Society for the History of Technology, annual conference, Washington, DC, 20 Sept. 2007.

“The Invention of Voting Machines: Addressing Election Integrity and Administrative Efficiency,” presented to Society for the History of Technology, annual conference, Las Vegas, NV, 13 October, 2006.

“Standards for Voting Systems,” submitted to International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) under contract for inclusion in an international publication, 30 May, 2005

“Requirements for Evaluation of Voting System Security,” invited presentation and submission to Technical Guidelines Development Committee of US Election Assistance Commission, Gaithersburg, MD, 20 September, 2004.

“Auditability of Non-Ballot, Poll-Site Voting Systems,” submitted to California Secretary of State’s Ad Hoc Touch Screen Task Force, 31 March, 2003; later revised and posted on the NIST website [].

“The Use of Pre-Scored Punch Card Ballots Should Be Ended,” prepared for litigation, for Cohen, Milstein, Halstead & Toll, P.L.L.C., and ACLU Foundation of So. California, rev. 10 Aug., 2003, and submitted to the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals to delay the California recall election.

“A Recommended Federal Role in Election Administration – A Personal View,” requested by and submitted to the National Commission on Federal Election Reform, 29 May 2001.

“Auditability and Voter-Confidence in Direct-Recording (DRE) Voting Systems,” Constitution Project, Election Reform Initiative, [online at]

“Assessment of Japan’s New Direct Recording Electronic Voting System,” 1 June 1999, for Center for Political Public Relations, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, available from IFES, Washington, DC.

“Assessment of Computerized Voting in Brazil with Recommendations for Nations of the Region,” 31 Oct. 1996, for Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, Brasilia, Brazil; available from IFES, Washington, DC.

“Vote-by-Phone – Promises and Pitfalls,” published in The Risks Digest, Vol. 11, Issue 75, 29 May 1991,

Examples of Public Speaking (from 1989):

“The History and Politics of Voting,” presented at the Osher Life Long Learning Institute of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, on 3 October and 17 October, 2013.

“Recommendations for Changes in Election Administration,” presented at the William G. McGowan Forum on Communications, Technology and Government, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, 17 October 2008.

“The EAC is Beginning to Fill the Institutional Void, but Changes in HAVA May Be Needed,” presented at a conference on “Are US Elections Getting Better or Worse? Is HAVA Working?” sponsored by The Center for Democracy and Election Management of American University, Washington, DC, 29 March 2006.

“Preparations for Voting: In Quest of Integrity and Public Confidence,” invited presentation to Voting Systems Testing Summit 2005, sponsored by the California Secretary of State, Sacramento, CA, 28 Nov. 2005.

“Failed Federalism Fueled the Florida Fiasco: Will Fighting over the Fix Fail the Future?” invited presentation to CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project at MIT, Cambridge, MA, 6 April 2004.

“Comments on Legislation Mandating Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail;” presentation to Howard County, MD, State Legislative Delegation, 4 February, 2004, Ellicott City, MD.

“The Demand for a Voter-Verified Audit Trail in the Context of the History of Voting Equipment Standards,” at Choosing Clarity, A Symposium on Voting Transparency, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, 6 December 2003.

“Latin American Experiences: Their Application to Mexico,” presented at International Forum: Experiences of Electronic Voting and its Application to Mexico, Monterrey, Mexico, 17 Oct. 2002.

“Standards for Elections: Past, Present and Future,” presentation at Workshop on Election Standards and Technology, Washington, DC, 31 Jan. 2002, []

“Will Congress Adopt the Consensus on Election Reform?” presentation at the Conference on Election Administration: Reform & Modernization,” Orlando, FL, 1 October 2001.

“Federalism and the Crisis in Election Administration,” featured presentation at the 2001 West Virginia Political Science and Public Administration Conference, held at West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, WV, 27 October 2001; (text available from author).

“Election Reform: Needs and Prospects,” Common Cause, Annual Leadership Meeting, Washington, DC, 2 March 2001.

“Planning for Computerization of Elections in Ecuador”, Andean Sub-regional Conference on Automation of Civil Registries and Electoral Procedures, Quito, Ecuador, 18 August 1999; conference sponsored by Organization of American States (OAS).

“Electronic Voting: Advantages and Disadvantages”, First International Convention on Electoral Processes, Lima, Peru, 20 January 1999; (text available from IFES, Washington, DC)

“Issues in National Planning for the Computerization of Elections,” International Conference on Automated Voting Systems, Brasilia, Brazil, 2 Oct. 1996; (available from IFES, Washington, DC).

“The Administration of Computerized Elections,” Annual Meeting, Computer Professionals For Social Responsibility, 1996.

“Federal Information Processing Standards Are Needed to Assure Accuracy and Integrity of Vote-Tallying in National Elections,” 16th National Computer Security Conference, Baltimore, 22/9/93.

“Computerization of the Election Process,” invited lecture at a graduate course in “Computers, Freedom and Privacy,” George Washington University, 3 Nov. 1992, Washington, DC.

“Use of Cryptographic Techniques in Computerized Voting,” Conference on Government Cryptography Policy, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Washington, DC, 10 June1991.

“Computerized Elections: The Quest for Public Confidence,” invited seminar lecture at University of Maryland, Institute of Urban Studies, 27 Oct. 1990, Baltimore, MD.

“Automation of Elections,” RAND Corp. 27 June 1989, Santa Monica, CA.

“Improving Public Confidence in Computerized Election Outcomes,” International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Election Officials and Treasurers, annual meeting, 26 June 1989, San Diego, CA.

“Public Policy for Computerized Elections,” Brookings Institution, 9 March 1989, Wash., DC.

“Administration of Computerized Elections,” Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections, 9 Feb. 1989, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL.

“Needed Legal Changes for Computerized Elections,” Joint (State of Florida) Legislative Committee on Information Technology Resources, 9 Jan. 1989, Tallahassee, FL.